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Home » General Information » Topography and Seasons

Topography and Seasons

The Indian Topography
Geographically, India is a land of contrasts. The geographical conditions in one part of the country may differ significantly from that of another. For example, behind the fertile Gangetic plains stands the vast snow clad Himalayan mountain ranges. In India's west, there are the arid deserts of Koteshwar and on the eastern tip are the virgin rainforests of Kivithoo. If the picturesque Kashmir valley in the north offers a spectacular sunrise view, at the land's end in Kanyakumari, one can also witness the mesmerizing sunsets.

These vivid changes become more clear when one moves through some of the less travelled routes of the country. One of the best examples is the route from Manali in the northern state of Himachal Pradesh to the city of Leh in Kashmir where the geographical contrast is most distinct. One could see, within a space of a few hundred meters, the lush green, pine covered Himalayas of the Sangla valley giving way to the barren moonscape of the Spiti valley. This is just one of the many examples of geographical diversity in India.

Indian Season
The Indian Season
Winters are the best time to visit India as it becomes very pleasant in the plains during this period. However, tourists could also have many other kinds of enjoyment during the summers and monsoon. Winter in the country starts in November and lasts till February. During the period, days are bright and sunny throughout India. This is the best time to go for beach holidays in India. The tiny Indian state of Goa with its splendid beaches remains full of tourists during this period. Even temperatures in Delhi and the desert region of Rajasthan hovers around 4°-20°C and attract tourists in large numbers. This is also the time when winter sports events are organized in the hill states of Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, Uttranchal and Sikkim. However, temperatures do not drop significantly in southern and eastern India during winters.

Summer is at its peak in India from April to June when most of India experiences very high temperatures. But this is also the time to escape into one of the many picturesque hill stations in the country. In some of these cool retreats, adventure sports such as trekking, paragliding and angling are also held. However, if you still want to travel in the plains braving the killer Indian heat, air-conditioned hotels and transport are easily available at most tourist destinations. As summer is considered the lean season in India in so far as tourism is concerned, most services shall also be available at cheaper rates. Monsoons arrive some time in late June bringing plenty of rain to the Indian sub-continent. The rainy season in India normally lasts till September. However, the south eastern region of the country receives most rainfall between mid-October and December-end. Some areas of India like Ladakh, the highest desert in the world, and neighbouring areas of Himachal Pradesh remain dry. A dry season may bring problems for the local population but opens up trekking opportunities for tourists.

Temperature Chart

A ready Reckoner on Temperature in six representative Indian cities

City Winter Temperature  
  In o C Oct Nov Dec. Jan. Feb. Mar  
Amritsar Max 31.9 26.5 21.4 18.6 22.6 27.5  
  Min 16.6 8.8 5.0 4.5 6.5 11.5  
Mumbai Max 32.4 33.1 32.1 30.6 31.6 32.8  
  Min 22.9 19.8 17.7 16.3 16.9 20.2  
Kolkata Max 31.4 29.0 26.5 26.4 29.0 33.8  
  Min 23.6 17.6 13.0 12.3 15.1 20.4  
Delhi Max 33.1 28.7 23.4 21.3 23.6 30.2  
  Min 18.7 11.8 8.0 7.3 10.1 15.1  
Chennai Max 31.8 29.2 29.2 28.8 30.6 32.7  
  Min 24.4 22.5 21.0 20.3 21.1 23.1  
Thiruvananthapuram Max 29.9 30.1 30.9 31.3 31.7 32.5  
  Min 23.4 23.1 22.5 22.3 22.9 24.2  
City Summer Temperatures  
  In o C April May June July Aug. Sep.
Amritsar Max 34.2 38.9 40.4 35.6 34.2 34.4
  Min 16.2 21.4 25.2 25.9 25.3 23.3
Mumbai Max 33.3 33.2 31.7 29.6 29.1 29.9
  Min 23.8 26.2 25.9 24.8 24.4 23.9
Kolkata Max 36.0 35.7 33.8 31.8 31.8 32.0
  Min 24.3 26.0 26.2 26.0 26.0 25.9
Delhi Max 36.2 40.5 39.9 35.3 33.7 34.1
  Min 21.0 26.6 28.7 27.2 26.1 24.6
Chennai Max 34.9 37.6 37.3 35.2 34.5 33.9
  Min 26.0 27.8 27.6 26.3 25.8 25.4
Thiruvananthapuram Max: 32.4 31.6 29.4 29.1 29.4 29.9
  Min 25.1 25.0 23.6 23.2 23.3 23.3

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